Many disorders can affect the joints of the toes, causing pain and preventing the foot from functioning as it should. People of all ages can have toe problems, from inherited to acquired.
Toe deformities in adults result mainly from an imbalance of the tendons, causing them to stretch or tighten abnormally. People with abnormally long toes, flat feet, or high arches have a greater tendency to develop toe deformities. Arthritis is another major cause of discomfort and deformity. Toe deformities also can be aggravated by poorly fitting footwear, or if a fractured toe heals in a poor position.
The most common digital deformities are hammertoes, claw toes, mallet toes, bone spurs, and overlapping and underlapping toes.